What is UAV or Drone technology?
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is the general term for various types of aircraft that operate autonomously under remote control from a central center or control station. Unmanned aircraft have undergone quite a few variations up to the present time and are also referred to by different names.
- UAS, traditional aircraft equipped with automatic control and navigation systems. These aircraft first appeared in the 1950s and are primarily used in military applications, such as reconnaissance and battlefield surveillance.
- New types of flying devices have been developed with smaller sizes and engines that operate at medium or small levels – known as Drones. This term has been widely used in real-world technology applications in recent times.
- Flycams are also the latest variation of these UAVs, equipped with cameras for observation.
These unmanned aerial vehicles have untapped potential for exploration. In the 21st century, Drones have become an increasingly popular technology in various fields, from military and industrial to film, television, entertainment, agriculture, commerce, transportation,….
Basic components of a Drone
A drone is composed of several components, including the frame, motors, propellers, battery, flight controller, and sensors.
- Frame: This is the physical structure of the drone, usually made of plastic, aluminum alloy, or carbon fiber, to reduce weight and increase durability.
- Both motors brushless and brushed type can be used for drones
- A brushed motor is less expensive and useful for small-sized drones
- Brushless type motors are powerful and energy very efficient. But they need Electronic Speed Controller (ESC) to control their speed. These brushless motors are widely used for racing freestyle drones, traffic surveys and aerial photography drones.
- The speed and load lifting ability of a drone depends on shape, size, and number of propellors
- The long propellors create huge thrust to carry heavy loads at a low speed (RPM) and less sensitive to change the speed of rotation
- Short propellors carry fewer loads. They change rotation speeds quickly and require a high speed for more thrust.
4. Electronic Speed Controller (ESC)
- ESC is used to connect the battery to the electric motor for the power supply
- It converts the signal from the flight controller to the revolution per minted (RPM) of motor
5. Flight Controller (FC)
- It is the computer processor which manages balance and telecommunication controls using different transmitter
- Sensors are located in this unit for the accelerometer, barometer, magnetometer, gyrometer and GPS
- The distance measurement can be carried out by an ultrasound sensor
6. Radio Transmitter sends the radio signal to ESC to pilot to control motor speed.
7. Radio Receiver: Received the signal from the pilot. This device is attached to the quadcopter
8. Battery: Low weight and high-power wattage battery is important. High-power capacity, Lithium Polymer (LiPo) (oror lithium-ion) is used for most drones.
9. Sensors: Drones are equipped with sensors such as accelerometers, compasses, air pressure sensors, and GPS to maintain their position and direction of movement.
In addition, types of drones based on the number of propellors. More propellors improve the stability of drones and load-carrying capacity but such drones need more battery power to drive more motors to get high power. A quadcopter is a more popular drone.
Applications of Drones
Unmanned aerial vehicles have revolutionized the field of surveying and object monitoring on the ground, overcoming spatial barriers in a shorter time. UAVs are currently applied in various fields and tasks.
In the military domain: Drones are used for target reconnaissance, terrain surveying, long-range target monitoring, and some types are even equipped with weaponry. In meteorology, drones gather atmospheric data for weather forecasting. In the film industry, flycams are highly popular for capturing shots from angles that are difficult to achieve manually.
Futhermore, finding victims in hazardous mountainous areas is no longer a difficult task. Drones provide real-time video of earthquakes, fires, floods,… when needed.
Drones will be showcased at INNOEX 2023
On August 24 and 25, Drones will be featured as one of the prominent technologies in the exhibition space at InnoEx 2023. For technology enthusiasts in general and drone technology enthusiasts in particular, this is an opportunity not to be missed to learn and explore the promising potential that Drones bring to the future.